Poliomyelitis
صحة FEB 08, 2017
Poliomyelitis (polio) is a highly infectious viral disease, which mainly affects young

children. The virus is transmitted by person-to- person, spreading mainly through the

fecal-oral route or, less frequently, by a common vehicle (e.g. contaminated water or

food) and multiplies in the intestine, from where it can invade the nervous system and can

cause a great damage.


Doctors often recognize polio by its symptoms. The initial symptoms of polio include

fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, and stiffness in the neck and pain in the limbs. In a

small proportion of cases, the disease causes paralysis, which is often permanent. Among

those paralyzed, 5 to 10% die when their respiratory muscles become immobilized. To

confirm the diagnosis, a sample of throat secretions, stool or cerebrospinal fluid (a

colorless fluid that surrounds your brain and spinal cord) is checked for the presence of

poliovirus.


There is no cure for polio, it can only be prevented by immunization. Otherwise, Polio

vaccine, when given multiple times, can protect a child for life, be it the Oral Polio

Vaccine (OPV) or the Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) (via injection).

In the future, and once polio is eradicated, the world will be able to celebrate the

delivery of a major global public good that will benefit all people equally, no matter

where they live. Economic modelling has found that the eradication of polio would

save at least US$ 40–50 billion over the next 20 years, mostly in low-income

countries. Most importantly, success will mean that no child will ever again suffer the

terrible effects of lifelong polio-paralysis.
صحة FEB 08, 2017
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