Molecular biology is a branch of science concerning biological activity at the molecular level.
The field of molecular biology overlaps with chemistry and biology and in particular, genetics and biochemistry. Molecular biology explores cells, their characteristics, parts, and chemical processes, and pays attention to how molecules control a cell’s activities and growth. Looking at the molecular machinery of life began in the early 1930s, but truly modern molecular biology emerged with the uncovering of the structure of DNA in the 1960s.
The specific techniques used in molecular biology are native to the field but may also be combined with methods and concepts concerning genetics and biochemistry, so there is no big distinction made between these disciplines.
However, when the fields are considered independently of each other, biochemistry concerns chemical materials and essential processes that take place in living organisms. The role, function and structure of biomolecules are key areas of focus among biochemists, as is the chemistry behind biological functions and the production of biomolecules. Genetics is concerned with the effects of genes on living organisms, which are often examined through “knock-out” studies, where animal models are designed so that they lack one or more genes compared to a “wild type” or regular phenotype.
Molecular biologists must be proficient in numerous subjects and sciences before they can effectively conduct research or academic activity in their field. It is presumed that all cell functions, which are incredibly complex and incompletely understood, take place on a molecular level. This means that the sophisticated interconnection and cooperation of biological molecules is what makes life possible, which is an intriguing subject that puzzles molecular biologists and motivates them to discover the secrets of cells. A molecular biologist is a highly intelligent individual that is preoccupied with exploring, understanding or teaching the concepts behind cellular structure and function on a molecular level.
Molecular biologists conduct research and academic activities. The research component involves the study of biological structures in well-equipped laboratories with advanced technology to help them explore complex molecular structures and their particular functions. The equipment may include microscopes, lab centrifuges, computers with specific software that allows them to analyze obtained data and many more. Molecular biologists work hard to discover specific patterns in certain biological materials and try to replicate the findings in other experiments to formulate biological hypotheses or theories. During their research work, experts in molecular biology attempt to isolate, purify and individually explore a particular component of a cell, such as a specific protein, a fragment of the DNA or a particular signaling molecule, which allows them to understand its function and then integrate and incorporate it in the complex, big picture of cellular function.
The reason why research in molecular biology is so important is because the concepts discovered in this manner can be applied to mainstream biology, wildlife study and protection of endangered animals.
In the industry level, a molecular biologist can work on Biotechnological manufacturing of molecules and materials, he can also Develop methods to process, store, and use food, drugs, and chemical compounds and he can genetically engineer crops resistant to pest, disease, and environmental changes.
When it comes to environmental/Government areas, a molecular biologist focuses on cellular level examination of how organisms function and react to themselves and other processes in the environment, such as pollution, plants, animals, and seasonal & evolutionary changes. He also evaluates the relationships between the structure and function of biological molecules in the cycling of inorganic nutrients, weathering of minerals, and toxic cleanup. Purifying and treating water for safe consumption and use is also one of the occupations of a molecular biologist.
On a medical and pharmaceutical level, the molecular biologist examines how diseases and drugs affect the human body (medical), he is also responsible of conducting biomedical research to understand the body’s response to new medicines.
Research in molecular biology literally aims to discover the essence of life and formulate theories of biological function that are applicable in other science fields and in real life. They develop and execute tests to detect disease, genetic disorders, or other abnormalities, they also Research and determine chemical action of substances, such as drugs, serums, hormones, and food on tissues and vital processes. Perfecting DNA analysis techniques in criminal investigations is also an essential role in molecular biology research.
A molecular biologist can also conduct academic work such as teaching, workshops, practical demonstrations in universities, at conferences, and in governmental agencies. This component requires the ability to explain the molecular concepts of biology in an easy-to-understand way for people who may need such knowledge in their field of study and work. At some point in their careers, doctors, environmental experts, biologists, bio-engineers and other professionals have been trained by a molecular biologist.
Least but not last molecular Biology is the study of cells—their structure, function, growth, and chemical processes. It focuses on the subcellular level, and is commonly used to study regulation and coordination of DNA,RNA, and proteins.
Molecular Biology is useful first of all for students who plan to enter a research career in Molecular Biology or related areas such as biochemistry, genetics, oncology, microbiology, cell biology or developmental biology, pharmaceutical, medical and industry areas, it can also be useful for pre-professional students planning to enter a research or clinical career in medicine or allied health fields, and finally it is very essential for students who plan to teach.
Most molecular biology jobs require a Bachelor’s degree. Post-grad programs, university level teaching and research, and administrative positions require a graduate degree.
It is critical to gain relevant work experience through internships, research, jobs, and volunteer work.